The Chloroplast

  • Endosymbiotic Origin

    Backstory: Of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Prokaryotes (pronounced ‘pro-carry-oats’) comprise the two Domains Bacteria and Archaea. Prokaryotes are defined as unicellular organisms without membrane-bound nuclei, and contain a…More »
  • The Thylakoid

    What Are Thylakoids? Thylakoids are unique to chloroplasts and their ancestral cyanobacteria, and are where photosynthesis begins for both. This chapter will focus on the thylakoids in chloroplasts, but with references to cyanobacteria where relevant.…More »
  • The Stroma

    What is the Stroma? Fig. 1 below is a simple rendition of a chloroplast, the photosynthesising organelle of plants and algae. The stroma is the fluid-filled space surrounding the grana (thylakoid stacks) inside that chloroplast. The stroma of a…More »
  • Light-Dependent Reactions

    Light-Dependent Reactions of Oxygenic Photosynthesis
  • Light-Independent Reactions

    Light-Independent Reactions of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

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